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DISEASE & CARE/TREATMENT

NECROTIC ENTERITIS

An acute or chronic enterotoxemia seen in chickens, turkeys and ducks worldwide, caused by gram-positive, obligate, anaerobic bacteria Clostridium perfringens.

Clostridium perfringens are ubiquitous bacteria readily found in soil, dust, feces, feed and used poultry litter. Infection occurs by faecal-oral route and can cause mortality of up to 5-50%, average of around 10% which are usually characterized by depression, ruffled feathers, inappetence, immobility, dark colored diarrhea and sudden death in ducks.

Lesions includes thickened and distended small intestine (middle to distal), intestinal mucosa with diptheric membrane, dark brown intestinal contents with necrotic material and affected birds tend to be dehydrated.

Predisposing factors of enterotoxemia that results in clinical disease often occurs after a change in the intestinal microflora or from a condition that results in damage to the intestinal mucosa such as coccidiosis, mycotoxicosis, salmonellosis, high dietary level of animal by-product.

Necrotic enteritis may lead to a huge economic losses to farmers and were considered to be one of the biggest challenge they are facing. Economic losses includes loss weight gain, higher time to market, poor flock condition, increased mortality, increased production cost (low FCR, High antibiotic usage), secondary infection among others.

Management at the farm level is a very important factor the farmers should consider in Necrotic Enteritis (NE) prevention. These includes litter quality and composition, lighting programs, stocking density, drinker management and dietary feed.

Antibiotics are being widely use for treatment and prevention of NE in feed and water. However, due to the reduce antibiotic sensitivity and growing concerns on food safety in humans, the use of alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters (enzymes, essential oils, herbs, spices, probiotics and prebiotics) are giving promising result in combating NE issue that are acceptable to poultry industry, and to the consuming public.

CARE/ TREATMENT

BIO-K1 – A well-proven probiotics; Zinc Bacitracin and Enramycin Replacer for Necrotic Enteritis

BIO-K1 is a well-proven probiotics in Japan and Korea which contains Bacillus subtilis (1x107CFU) and Clostridium butyricum (1x106CFU). Bacillus subtilis has excellent deodorizing effect and Clostridium butyricum reduces the growth of harmful bacteria like Clostridium perfringens and promote a healthy digestive system.

Unlike antibiotic-growth promotant (AGP) like Zinc Bac and Enramycin, which can cause bacterial resistance and can be found as a meat residue in the meat, BIO-K1 is safe and does not cause any bacterial resistance and antibiotic meat residue.

BIO-K1 functions thru competitive exclusion of harmful bacteria. It promotes proper micronutrient absorption by establishing healthy gut and/or intestinal microflora. BIO-K1 also increase drug absorption and transfer rate, increase feed conversion, and promotes pre-digestion of anti-nutritional factors.

BIO-K1 also decreases odor and flies due to its deodorizing effects, which prevents secondary bacterial infection like Mycoplasma, thus reducing the incidence of Complicated Chronic Respiratory Disease (CCRD).

BIO-K1Feed
(Well-proven Probiotics)
Composition (Each kg contains)
Bacillus subtilis 1x107CFU Clostridium butyricum 1x106CFU.

Indications
• Poultry
Reduction of bad smell (ammonia gas) due to increase fermentation of manure Reduction of diarrhea incidence and improvement of intestinal disorder Improvement of digestibility Improvement of health condition such as immunity, survival rate Improvement of productivities such as weight gain, egg production Improvement of environmental condition in farm

• Swine and Cattle
Reduction of bad smell (ammonia gas) due to increase fermentation of manure Reduction of diarrhea incidence and improvement of intestinal disorder Improvement of digestibility Improvement of health condition such as immunity, survival rate Improvement of productivities such as weight gain, feed efficiency Improvement of environmental condition in farm

Dosage and Administration
• Poultry :
Administer 1~3kg of Estrim-P per 1ton of feed according to animal health condition.

• Swine
Administer 1~3kg of Estrim-P per 1ton of feed according to animal health condition.

• Cattle
Adult - Administer 20~100g of Estrim-P per head per day. Calf - Administer 1~10g of Estrim-P per head per day.

Storage
Store at a cool and dark place with dry condition

Packing
1kg, 5kg, 20kg

Precaution
Use the unsealed product as soon as possible. Read full directions before use. Keep out of reach of children.

Additives (Probiotics)

References:
www.thepoultrysite.com/diseaseinfo/101
www.merckmanuals.com/overview of necrotic enteritis
Effects of Clostridium butyricum on growth performance, immune function, and caecal microflora in broiler chickens challenged with Escherichia coli K88., YangCM1 et.al